अमानक वर्ण

अमानक वर्ण  Hindi grammar questions for competitive exam part-5




1  शुद्ध वर्तनी    2 . अमानक वर्ण 

 (i)  -शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ बर्तन की शुद्ध " वर्तनी " क्या है ?
बर्तन का शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ "बर्तन " का शुद्ध वर्तनी   "बरतन "है ∣

  (ii) . अमानक वर्ण - हिंदी में बहुत से ऐसे वर्ण हुआ करते थे ,जो की वर्तमान समय में चलन में नहीं है ,अथवा हिंदी के मूल वर्णो में शामिल नहीं है।  इस प्रकार के  सभी वर्ण " अमानक वर्णो " की श्रेणी में  आते हैं Ι
 अर्थात वे   " वर्ण " जो पूर्व में तो मान्य रहे हो ,परन्तु वर्तमान वर्णमाला के दृस्टीकोण   से मान्य न  होते हो , अमानक वर्ण है ।
अमानक वर्ण क्या है ➨ ऐसे वर्ण जिनका कोई " मानक " न हो , तथा जो सर्वमान्य न हो " अमानक " वर्ण है , अथवा ऐसे वर्ण जिनका पहले तो मानक रहा हो परन्तु वर्तमान समय में उनका कोई " मानक " न  हो अमानक वर्ण कहलाते है ।

अमानक वर्ण किसे  कहते है ➨ जब कोई वर्ण वर्तमान परिपेक्ष्य  के मानकों  पर खरा नहीं उतरता अथवा वर्तमान में स्वीकार वर्णमाला में शामिल न  हो , अथवा पूर्व में स्वी…

Meaning and definition of learning

Meaning and definition of learning


Meaning and definition of learning
Meaning and definition of learning


Meaning and Definition of Learning - Learning in common language means "learning", that is, when something new is learned by a child, we call it "learning" under the language of child development or pedagogy.

The child makes mistakes and then learns from those mistakes. Then again makes a mistake and learns from them, and this sequence goes on. So this process is called learning or learning.


For example - if a small child gets burnt by drinking tea. So he will never drink tea.


Learning Features

According to Woodworth - "Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge and processes."

According to Skinner - "Learning or learning is a process of harmony in practice."
According to Crowe and Crowe - "Acquisition of habit, knowledge, attitude and interests is learning."

According to Gilford - "The change in behavior due to behavior is learning."

According to Gardner Murphy - "The term learning encompasses all kinds of behavioral changes to meet environmental needs."

Definition of language learning

➤ Definition - The area of ​​the language is wide. Under this, speaking language, writing language, sign language etc. all kinds of languages ​​come. Rona, Balbalana, Hav-bhav, Signs etc.

➤ Forms of language learning ➨ Assessment, comprehension power, vocabulary, sentence formation, pure pronunciation etc. ∣

(i) All animals living on the earth have their own language.

 (ii) English, Hindi is also all language.

 (iii) Language can also be meaningless, such as the language of sign-language.

 (iv) A dumb person also has language, which he expresses by gestures of his body parts.

 (v) When the "child" takes birth, and when he cries, it is said to be his first language.

Theory of learning

The theory of learning was formulated by Thornadike. In which he propounded the principle of "stimulating and responding".


In addition, some theories of learning are as follows.

1 - Relationalism theory - This theory was formulated by "Thornadike". The important facts regarding this theory are as follows.


This theory has various nicknames. Which is as follows: theory of stimulation response, theory of effort and error, theory of learning, S-R theory etc.

 In this theory Thornadike used his experiment on "cats".
 Thornadike formulated this theory in 1913.
 This principle emphasizes learning.
 This theory is more useful for science subjects and mathematics subjects.

2 - Principle of Interstudy or sense and Gestilite theory - Important facts regarding this principle are as follows.


 In this theory - experiment was done on the Vanamanus and Chimpanzees.

 The originators of this theory were Vardimar, Koffa and Kolhar.
 This theory emphasizes finding oneself to solve problems.

3 - Principle of social learning and theory of observational learning - Important facts regarding this theory are as follows.


 This theory was formulated by Albert Bandura.
 According to this theory, a person imitates social behaviors.
 For example - looking at an actor and trying to behave the same way.

4 - Principle of Optimized Response - The important facts regarding this principle are as follows.


 This theory was formulated by "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov".
 "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov" was performed in 1904.

 Other surnames of this theory are as follows - the principle of classical contract, the principle of affinity reaction, the principle of stirring reaction


 "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov" used this experiment on a dog.

Learning methods

There are various methods of learning, some of which are important learning methods.

1 Learning by doing method - When the child learns by doing a task directly, we consider it under the "learning by doing" method. In this method, the child does a task himself and if there is any error, then correct it. Let's do it again.

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