अमानक वर्ण

अमानक वर्ण   Hindi grammar questions  for competitive exam  part-5   1  शुद्ध वर्तनी    2 . अमानक वर्ण   (i)  - शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ बर्तन की शुद्ध " वर्तनी " क्या है ?   बर्तन का शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ "बर्तन " का शुद्ध वर्तनी   "बरतन " है ∣   (ii) . अमानक वर्ण - हिंदी में बहुत से ऐसे वर्ण हुआ करते थे ,जो की वर्तमान समय में चलन में नहीं है ,अथवा हिंदी के मूल वर्णो में शामिल नहीं है।  इस प्रकार के  सभी वर्ण " अमानक वर्णो " की श्रेणी में  आते हैं Ι  अर्थात वे   " वर्ण " जो पूर्व में तो मान्य रहे हो ,परन्तु वर्तमान वर्णमाला के दृस्टीकोण   से मान्य न  होते हो , अमानक वर्ण है ।     अमानक वर्ण क्या है ➨ ऐसे वर्ण जिनका कोई " मानक " न हो , तथा जो सर्वमान्य न हो " अमानक " वर्ण है , अथवा ऐसे वर्ण जिनका पहले तो मानक रहा हो परन्तु वर्तमान समय में उनका कोई " मानक " न  हो अमानक वर्ण कहलाते है ।   अमानक वर्ण किसे  कहते है ➨ जब कोई वर्ण वर्तमान परिपेक्ष्य  के मानकों  पर खरा नहीं उतरता अथवा

child development and pedagogy notes in english pdf

child development and pedagogy notes in english pdf


child development and pedagogy notes in english pdf

PART -12 

Conditions of development - Different stages of development of the child have been defined by different psychologists in their own way. Which has some psychological major. 

(1) Jean Piazza - "Jean Piazza" was a psychologist from Switzerland. In order to understand the development of intelligence in children, he searched over his children. 

Through his studies, he has explained in detail the "stages of development" in the subject of psychology. So that we could also focus on this in today's modern child development topic.

(i) According to Jean Piazza - "until the child reaches the adolescent stage, he acquires functional activity in different classes in different stages of development."

(ii) According to Jean Piazza - "Cognitive development is based on discovery, not just copying."

(iii) According to Jean Piazza - "Satisfaction is related to the direct, dynamic, coordination of the child."

(iv) According to Piaget, there are four stages of development. which is like this.

(i) Induced gametic state - The time period of sensible gamma state is from the birth of the child to 24 months i.e. about 2 years. In this age, the wisdom of that child is known by his actions. Piazza explains this by a very good example.

Like - "A child needs toys, which are placed on top of a sheet. But the child's hand is not reaching there. So the child pulls the sheet towards him to get those toys, and those toys Attains. "According to Piazza, this process falls under intellectual action.

(ii) Pre-operative stage - The time period of pre-operational stage - starting from the age of two years (2 years) of the child's age - (7) till the age of seven years.

→ In the pre-operative state, the child gets new experiences. Also, the child receives new information.

→ We start to do a little more problems than the former child, or try to solve them.

→ In this stage the language of the child develops. , As well as more knowledge of the words related to the language - begins to occur.

→ In this state the child is "autism".

According to Apiaje - "There is a lack of" cognizant - maturity "in children under 6 years of age. Due to this lack, they are able to learn traditional problems only when they are taught and trained."

(iii) Tangible operational state - This stage (7) starts from the age of seven years and lasts till the age of 11 years. That is, the time period of this stage is from seven years to 11 years. This state has different characteristics, which are as follows.

→ At this stage, the child realizes that - the weight, number, and length are constant.

→ At this stage, the child also starts understanding the environment.

(iv) - Abstraction - Operational state - The time period of this stage in the life of a child is from 11 years to old age. In this state, the following characteristics are found in the child. Which is as follows.

→ In this stage the child can understand different types of problems, as well as he can consider those problems more effectively.

➦ According to Jean Piazza - "The stage in which a child recognizes or distinguishes the objects of his surroundings. That stage is called the pre-operative stage of that child."

According to Jean Piaget - "The inclusion of new ideas in the thoughts of a child is called Satmikaran".

Lawrence Kolberg - Laurence Kolberg was an American psychologist. Those who have expressed their views on the "stage of moral development" of the child. Which is as follows.

According to Lawrence Kolberg - "Some stages of development of morality or character are found in children. They are as follows."

(i) Pre-moral state - The time period of this stage - starts from the age of four (4) years, and lasts till the age of 10 years.

(ii) Traditional moral state - According to Kolberg, this period of time in the life of a child - starting from the age of 10 years - lasts till the age of 13 (thirteen) years.

(iii) Self-adopted moral value state - According to Kolberg the time period of this stage - starts from 13 (thirteen) years, and continues till maturity.

Liv Vygotsky

Liv Vygotsky- Liv Vygotsky was the psychologist of the Soviet Union of present-day Russia. He gave the principles related to social development of children.

According to the theory of Liv Vygotsky - "At every developmental level of the child, his society has a special contribution. It is the result of interaction with society that leads to different development in it."

 According to Liv Vygotsky's theory - "The most important contribution to the development of a child is of society."

Based on the above description, we can say that, whatever the child's society will be like, good or bad, it definitely affects the child. If the child lives in a society where facilities and facilities are less, then its adverse effect is seen in his behavior.

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