अमानक वर्ण

अमानक वर्ण   Hindi grammar questions  for competitive exam  part-5   1  शुद्ध वर्तनी    2 . अमानक वर्ण   (i)  - शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ बर्तन की शुद्ध " वर्तनी " क्या है ?   बर्तन का शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ "बर्तन " का शुद्ध वर्तनी   "बरतन " है ∣   (ii) . अमानक वर्ण - हिंदी में बहुत से ऐसे वर्ण हुआ करते थे ,जो की वर्तमान समय में चलन में नहीं है ,अथवा हिंदी के मूल वर्णो में शामिल नहीं है।  इस प्रकार के  सभी वर्ण " अमानक वर्णो " की श्रेणी में  आते हैं Ι  अर्थात वे   " वर्ण " जो पूर्व में तो मान्य रहे हो ,परन्तु वर्तमान वर्णमाला के दृस्टीकोण   से मान्य न  होते हो , अमानक वर्ण है ।     अमानक वर्ण क्या है ➨ ऐसे वर्ण जिनका कोई " मानक " न हो , तथा जो सर्वमान्य न हो " अमानक " वर्ण है , अथवा ऐसे वर्ण जिनका पहले तो मानक रहा हो परन्तु वर्तमान समय में उनका कोई " मानक " न  हो अमानक वर्ण कहलाते है ।   अमानक वर्ण किसे  कहते है ➨ जब कोई वर्ण वर्तमान परिपेक्ष्य  के मानकों  पर खरा नहीं उतरता अथवा

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download

child development and pedagogy book in english pdf free download


(1) From general to special - The process of development of a child always moves from normal to special. The activity of a child from childhood to old age - from the normal to the specific and continues.


→ A child cries out his "reactions" in childhood.

→ That is when that child grows up, he expresses the expression "by speaking".

In this way, the process of development always moves from general to specific. Which includes both physical growth and mental growth of the child.

(2) Development speed is different - growth and development in the child is not always the same or similar. His speed changes.

For example -

→ In infancy, the pace of growth and development of children is fast. Then that speed slows or slows down.

→ Then this growth speed is again "rapid" in adolescence.

→ Then this speed becomes "slow".

Therefore, based on the above fact we can say. That the pace of development is not always the same or the same. The order of development and growth varies in different stages of development in any child. Which is never the same.

(3) Principle of interrelation - The "principle of interrelation" of a child means that when one part of a child develops, its other part is also affected by it. Within which all the dimensions of the development of the child come. In which the child's social development, physical development, mental development, emotional development, etc. come.

Such as -

→ If the child's physical development is good, then his social development will also be good.

→ On the other hand, if the child's physical development is not good, then it increases the probability that the social development of that child will not be as good. Also, other areas of development of that child will also be affected by it.

→ So thus all the dimensions of this development are related to each other. Therefore, development of one area of ​​the child also affects his other area.

(4) Principle of Integration - Under this principle - the child initially learns to move all the parts of the body. After that, the child learns to move different parts of the body parts. At the same time, the child learns to establish "harmonies" and "unify" them while moving these parts and their parts separately.

That is, the child starts running the organs and their parts together to establish "integration" in them. The same principle falls under the child's principle of "integration".

For example -

→ First the child learns to move the hand, then after that he learns to move the fingers.

→ After that the child learns to move both hands and fingers simultaneously. That is, that child learns to reconcile hands and fingers.

(5) Prediction of growth - Prediction of growth means that when a child is made looking at the current growth speed and growth, a prediction is made for his future. This is called the prediction of development.

For example -

→ If the growth and development of a child is fast. So it is quite possible that the pace of development of that child will continue in this way.

→ Conversely if the growth and development of a child is slow. So will it be in the same way.

But many psychologists differ on this fact. Whether development can be decided in the past, or not.

(6) Theory of Reinforcement - The exponent of Reinforcement Theory is "Dollard and Miller".

(7) Theory of social learning - The exponent of social learning theory is "bandura and balters".

In the theory of social learning, only "environment" is given more importance, flora - "arithmetic"

He did various experiments to spread the theory of social learning in a more elaborate manner.

One of which is as follows.

He showed Balko a "film". The film had three parts, with three different characterizations of the actor.

Such as -

→ In the first part of the film - the behavior of the "actor" is very "aggressive". Because of which he gets punished.

→ In the second part of the film - "Actor" has "aggressive behavior", for which he gets the award.

→ In the third part of the film - "Actor" gets "No-Penalty" and "No Award" for his aggressive behavior. "

→ After showing the three characters of the film differently, when Balko was asked about the film, which of the three characters did he like best? ... that is, which character would they like to emulate.

→ All the children used to reply to this, that they do not like the "first part" of the film, and would not like to "follow" the first part of that film.

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