अमानक वर्ण

अमानक वर्ण  Hindi grammar questions for competitive exam part-5




1  शुद्ध वर्तनी    2 . अमानक वर्ण 

 (i)  -शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ बर्तन की शुद्ध " वर्तनी " क्या है ?
बर्तन का शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ "बर्तन " का शुद्ध वर्तनी   "बरतन "है ∣

  (ii) . अमानक वर्ण - हिंदी में बहुत से ऐसे वर्ण हुआ करते थे ,जो की वर्तमान समय में चलन में नहीं है ,अथवा हिंदी के मूल वर्णो में शामिल नहीं है।  इस प्रकार के  सभी वर्ण " अमानक वर्णो " की श्रेणी में  आते हैं Ι
 अर्थात वे   " वर्ण " जो पूर्व में तो मान्य रहे हो ,परन्तु वर्तमान वर्णमाला के दृस्टीकोण   से मान्य न  होते हो , अमानक वर्ण है ।
अमानक वर्ण क्या है ➨ ऐसे वर्ण जिनका कोई " मानक " न हो , तथा जो सर्वमान्य न हो " अमानक " वर्ण है , अथवा ऐसे वर्ण जिनका पहले तो मानक रहा हो परन्तु वर्तमान समय में उनका कोई " मानक " न  हो अमानक वर्ण कहलाते है ।

अमानक वर्ण किसे  कहते है ➨ जब कोई वर्ण वर्तमान परिपेक्ष्य  के मानकों  पर खरा नहीं उतरता अथवा वर्तमान में स्वीकार वर्णमाला में शामिल न  हो , अथवा पूर्व में स्वी…

r gupta child development and pedagogy pdf in english

r gupta child development and pedagogy pdf in english

Part-4
r gupta child development and pedagogy pdf in english

1- Linguistic development - The development of the child's "language" is only part of the child's mental abilities.

 The process of language development in a child starts only after he is born from his childhood.

 Ever since the child is born, he starts learning the language. All these efforts of the child continue in different forms.

There may be various attempts by the child to learn language.

Different stages of knowledge of child's words

(i) 8 months from birth - The child does not know any words during the time period from birth to 8 months.

(ii) In the time period between 9 months to 12 years, the child starts to understand 3 (four) words.

(iii) Within about "one and a half year", the child becomes aware of ten to twelve words.

(iv) By the age of "two years" (2), the child becomes aware of more than 200 words.

(v) The child - within "three years" begins to understand the words "1000" (one - thousand) approximately.

(vi) The child - by the age of sixteen years - begins to understand the words "1 lakh".

2 - Various efforts to learn the language

(i) Verbal expression - Under this the child expresses his words by speaking.

From the verbal expression of the child, we can find out at what level the "linguistic development" of that child has taken place.

A child can introduce his linguistic knowledge only through his oral expression.

(ii) Symbolic expression - Symbolic expression is that "expression".

 In which the child uses a "hint" to say his point. That is, when a child says something by a "sign", it is called "symbolic expression" of that child.

Like - to ask the finger to move here - there.

(iii) Written expression - Written expression is that expression.
In which the child writes and expresses his point.

For a written accused, the child needs to have knowledge of writing.

3- Knowledge of linguistic development for teacher - It is necessary or mandatory for any teacher to have complete knowledge of development of "language".

Because with this only a teacher can solve the problems of a child.

As we know that children have to face different types of problems related to language, but if a teacher does not have knowledge related to this linguistic problem of the child, then he will not be able to solve those problems.

(i) Looting / stuttering - In some children we see that - Speaking and stuttering is also a problem.

 Which can have various reasons. Balko's speaking of "fetching" is a kind of speech defect. Therefore, the teacher should motivate such children to speak "spast" or emphasize some other remedial teaching process.

But this is possible only if a teacher has knowledge in this subject.

social development

 → Social development - social development is that development. In which the child develops the ability to adjust with others.

In other words, the ability to adjust with oneself and others is called social development.

→ Social development of a child starts with his birth.

→ Under social development - social beliefs, customs, social-atmosphere etc. contribute to the child's development, or "influence" the development of a child.

Emotional development

➨ Emotional development means "development of emotions" of a child. For "all round development" of any child, that child's "emotional development" is very important.

 Because if there is no complete development of a child's impetus, then it affects the "overall development" of that child.

➨ Under emotional development - "Fear, anger, hatred, wonder, affection, sadness etc. come.

 The most impact on emotional development - is the family environment of the child.

 The age appropriate to receive "pre-primary" education is two years (2 - 6) years.

 The most complex or difficult or stormy stage of development - the child's "adolescence".

➤ Nose - Eye - and Tongue These three are included in human "knowledge".

➤ When the child develops the ability to solve a problem on a personal level, then we will include it from the point of view of development - "cognitive development".

➤ Upper primary level child has the following characteristics.
(i) Speed ​​in work.

(ii) display of behavior (in different forms)
Theory of Evolution

(i) Theory of Continuity - Under "Principle of Continuity" -

"Development" is a continuous process. This process goes on from child birth till death. That is, development is a process that goes on continuously without stopping from birth to death.

Under this theory -

⟶ Physical development, mental development, social development etc. of the child are all included.

That is, all these development of any child - physical development, mental development, social development etc.

 All of them are constantly running non-stop due to the virtue of this "continuity" of development.

(i) According to this theory, growth and development in children occurs through their own personal cause.

(2) The principle of personal difference - under it we see that - the growth and development of children is due to their personal reasons. Also, different dimensions of this theory are as follows.

(i) According to this theory, growth and development in children occurs through their own personal cause.

(ii) Due to this theory, different types of variation can be seen in all children. That is, due to this principle, the development of all children is never the same or the same. Variations are always found in their development.
 The reason behind this is the principle.


(iii) Due to this theory of development, a child is brilliant. The other one is another child - ordinary or backward.

Therefore, any teacher must have this knowledge before taking remedial teaching and teaching so that he can treat children on the same basis. This is important in you.

(3) Principle of Uniformity - According to this theory, "unity" is found in some theories even though there are differences in different forms of development. Which is like this.

(i) Members of a family - On being a member of a family, they see a wide variety of similarities. It can also be in the form or form of equality.

(ii) Like the growth of all humans from "head to toe". That is, in the structure of the human body first - the head of the human is formed.

Then gradually the lower part and finally the legs are formed. This process of human development is the same or similar in all human beings. Therefore, we keep this process of development under the principle of "uniformity".




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