अमानक वर्ण

अमानक वर्ण  Hindi grammar questions for competitive exam part-5




1  शुद्ध वर्तनी    2 . अमानक वर्ण 

 (i)  -शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ बर्तन की शुद्ध " वर्तनी " क्या है ?
बर्तन का शुद्ध वर्तनी ➨ "बर्तन " का शुद्ध वर्तनी   "बरतन "है ∣

  (ii) . अमानक वर्ण - हिंदी में बहुत से ऐसे वर्ण हुआ करते थे ,जो की वर्तमान समय में चलन में नहीं है ,अथवा हिंदी के मूल वर्णो में शामिल नहीं है।  इस प्रकार के  सभी वर्ण " अमानक वर्णो " की श्रेणी में  आते हैं Ι
 अर्थात वे   " वर्ण " जो पूर्व में तो मान्य रहे हो ,परन्तु वर्तमान वर्णमाला के दृस्टीकोण   से मान्य न  होते हो , अमानक वर्ण है ।
अमानक वर्ण क्या है ➨ ऐसे वर्ण जिनका कोई " मानक " न हो , तथा जो सर्वमान्य न हो " अमानक " वर्ण है , अथवा ऐसे वर्ण जिनका पहले तो मानक रहा हो परन्तु वर्तमान समय में उनका कोई " मानक " न  हो अमानक वर्ण कहलाते है ।

अमानक वर्ण किसे  कहते है ➨ जब कोई वर्ण वर्तमान परिपेक्ष्य  के मानकों  पर खरा नहीं उतरता अथवा वर्तमान में स्वीकार वर्णमाला में शामिल न  हो , अथवा पूर्व में स्वी…

child development and pedagogy

child development and pedagogy

child development and pedagogy
child development and pedagogy



Part - 13

(1) Psychology - The word "Psychology" is derived from two words of "Greek" - Sayko and Logos. In Greek, "Psych" means - Spirit and Logos - "Science". Thus this word The full meaning of "science of soul" is. That is, in the "Greek language", we soul in psychology

The science of

(2) Psychology - The term Psychology is called "Psychology" in Hindi language. Psychology refers to "science of mind" or - "science of mental activities". That is, 'psychology is a science that is governed by our mind, brain. The meaning of this "psychology" has been seen to change over time.

Such as -



(3) From tenure to the 16th century CE - it was called "Science of the soul". Its great supporters - "Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Ram, Hobbes, etc.

(4) From the 16th century to the 17th century, it was called - "Science of mind or brain". Its great supporters - "Thomas, Reid, Locke etc.

(5) From the 17th century to the 19th century - it was called - "Science of Consciousness". Its staunch supporters - "William James, Tichner, Jameslee - etc. did.

(6) From the 19th century to the term of "present time" - it was called "Science of Behavior". Its staunch supporter - the only "Watson" did.

(7) The first laboratory of psychology in the countries of the West was first established by "William Wunt".


(8) According to psychologist Wilson - "Mind is present in the" limpic system "inside the brain"

(9) In India, in about 20 (twentieth century) - the study of "Western Psychology" started.

(10) In our ancient Indian philosophy, the emphasis is on the study of knowledge and conscience in psychology. In which emphasis is given to the study of conscience (mind, intellect, ego, mind and soul) etc. Under this, the behavior is explained in the "four corpus". That is, from these four treasures, the emphasis has been laid on understanding the behavior of a person.

Those four treasures are as follows -

(i) Annamaya Kosha - Under the Anmaya Kosha, the "Gyanandris" and "Karma Indras" of our body are studied.

(ii) Pranmaya Kosh - Under "Pranmaya Kosh" in Indian philosophy - "Physical capacity" and "Prana Shakti" is how much study is done.
(iii) Manumaya Kosh - Under Indian philosophy - the "mind" of a child is studied under "Manumaya Kosh".

(iv) Vigyanamaya Kosh - According to Indian philosophy - "Wisdom" of the child is included under the "Vigyan - Maya" Kosh.

Note- Psychology is a branch of philosophy - from which it was first separated by "William James".

(11) According to Indian Psychology - Psychology is the science which preserves the experiences that are in our brain from the "external senses". In other words, an experience that is safe in our mind - intellect - ego - soul etc. - is psychology. Psychologists or thinkers of India have called the mind "sixth sense".

(12) Psychologist - According to Fechner - "The study of psychology - is the development of psychodynamic methods.



(13) According to the psychologist Fied and Chugh - "There are two levels of psychology - in which

The first level is - conscious while the second level is --- unconscious - hence - Fried and Chugh - also called the father of conscious and unconscious science. "

(1) Giju Bhai - Indian educationist Giju Bhai was a great educationist. Apart from being an educationist, he was also a writer of Gujarati language. He has done remarkable work for the "child-centered" education system. He brought the "child-centered" education system to more and more people. Along with this, he wrote many books on this subject. So that people have a good understanding of the "child-centered" education system and make it easy to implement.

(2) Child-centered education - In child-centered education system, teachers are required to have different types of information about the child.

→ Be aware of the behavior of the child.

→ Be aware of the requirements of the child.

→ Be aware of the mental level of the child.

→ In which field is the child interested, that is, if the child is interested in studies, then in which subject is more interested. If the child is good at sports, then which sports are more interested.

→ What are the qualifications of a child. The

→ How is the child personality?

(3) Evaluation and testing - Under child-centered education - "Assessment and testing" includes various facts. which is like this.


(i) There are two types of evaluation. In this, the teacher evaluates the child in the first assessment, the child evaluates himself in the second evaluation.

(ii) The teacher gets information about what and how much change is to be done in the education system.

(iii) It is through evaluation that a teacher shows how much progress the child has made.

(iv) How much progress has been made in the education of the child in modern child development or psychology and how much success and failure has been achieved, it is also measured by the evaluation method.

Based on the above description, we can say that all methods of evaluation are based on the psychology of the child. And by using these methods, there is a big difference in the behavior of children.

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अमानक वर्ण

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