arihant child development and pedagogy pdf
In the present-day explanation of the stages of development of human beings, most of the scholars have broadly emphasized four
(4) major stages. In which - infancy, childhood, adolescence, adolescence. Apart from this, all "psychologists" have given different definitions in this regard on their "personal" basis.
But here we are describing those 4 major stages.
Education Psychology - Education Psychology is included in the "three" major stages.
Which is as follows - infancy, childhood, adolescence. So from the point of view of "education" these 3 major stages are important.
1 - Infancy - The period of "infancy" - is considered to be "from birth to 5 or 6 years". In this stage, in the initial three-three years, that is, the development of child in pre-infancy (physical development and mental development) takes place at a very rapid pace.
Pre-infancy - 🔻 (three years from birth _)
From the point of view of education - childhood is considered very important from the point of view of education. Because at this stage, the foundation of the development of the child and the foundation of education are found. Therefore, this stage is considered very important from the point of view of education in child development.
2 - Childhood - The period of "childhood" - is considered to be from 6 years to 11 or 12 years. Its first stage i.e. pre-childhood - (from 6 years to 9 years). The length of children at this stage And the weight both increases very fast. Also in this stage, the child's ability to reason starts developing. In this stage, the speed of learning of children - from infancy is slow, but learning of children is slow. That, which is the area or scope rises than Shaisvvstha.
So at this stage - special attention needs to be given to the education of children. So that - the intellectual ability of children can be developed in the right form.
The various characteristics of this state are as follows.
The time period of adolescence - "12 years to 18 years" is considered. In this stage, which is pre-adolescence. Approximately - from 12 years to 14 years - the length and weight of girls increases much faster than the height and weight of children. That is, in this stage (pre-adolescence), rapid growth and development in the length and weight of girls (adolescent girls) is seen.
Conversely, in the post-adolescent age - from 14 years to 18 years, there is a rapid increase in the length and mass of children in comparison to girls.
➣ Also, this state has the following toxicities, which are as follows.
(1) Complete development of the intellect - Complete development of the intelligence of boys and girls takes place at this stage only. With this, their memory power develops more rapidly than before. Now they do not have to put much effort to concentrate. In this state, children understand something quickly and very quickly and react to it.
(ii) Augmentation of social life - In this stage a big change is seen in the social life of the child. In which the tendency of the child is found to be making friends and trying to keep the friendship alive. Therefore, in this stage the child makes new friends. Thus in this stage the social area of the child increases. In this stage, parents need special attention.
(iii) Drug, crime problem - At this stage, drug, crime and various problems are also found in the lives of children. Therefore, if the children are not paid proper attention in this stage, then the children - falling into bad company or misleading - fall into "addiction", and make their life worse than hell. Thus in this stage we need to pay special attention to the children.
(iv) - Stormy state - Adolescence is also called the "stormy state" of life. Because at this stage the mental and physical condition and activities of the child are like a "storm".
If the child does not get the right guidance at such a time, then he turns in the wrong direction - due to wrong association or lack of information. Therefore, special attention is required on the child at this stage. In this stage, the decision has to be made without thinking - because of understanding, not caring, not seeing far-reaching results.
Therefore, parents should let the children fall prey to loneliness in this state, and should be guided from time to time. In this state, it is also common for children to get very angry and then calm down. Also, special attention should be kept on children's friends, diet and behavior etc. at this stage.