displacement reaction examples

displacement reaction examples



  • Chemical properties of and non-metals are divided into five categories : REACTION WITH OXYGEN, REACTION WITH WATER, REACTION WITH ACIDS, REACTION WITH BASES, and DISPLACEMENT REACTION .


◆METALS=Most metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides.


 •sodium react very fast with oxygen that is present in the air to Form sodium oxide .

 As a result it catches fire if it left in open. 
It is, therefore,kept immersed in Kerosene.

  • 4Na    +       O2      =    2Na2O    

Sodium + oxygen = sodium oxide

  •magnesium, on heating , 
burns in air (oxygen)with a dazzling white light to form magnesium oxide. 

  2Mg     +      O2    =    2MgO 

 Magnesium + oxygen = magnesium oxide

 The metallic oxides formed are basic in nature and it turn red litmus solution into blue.

 ◆NON-METALS = Non-metals like carbon , sulphur and phosphorus react with oxygen to form non-metals oxides . 
These oxides are also called acidic oxides as they are form acid when they dissolved in water.

•when carbon burns in air (oxygen) it form carbon dioxide
  • C       +     O2       =       SO2
  • Carbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide
• when sulphur burns in air  (oxygen) it form a pungent, suffocating gas called sulphur dioxide.
  • S       +       O2     =     SO2
  • Sulphur + Oxygen = sulphur  dioxide
When These oxides dissolve in water they form acids , and they turn blue litmus solution into red .
  • CO2    +     H2O   =    H2CO3
  • Carbon dioxide + water = carbonic acid
  • SO2      +        H2O        =      H2SO3

  • Sulphur dioxide + water = sulphurous acid


METALS = Most metals react with water to produce a metal hydroxide or metal oxide and hydrogen gas .

Metal + water  =  Metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas
  • Metal + water = metal oxide +  Hydrogen gas---
sodium reacts violently with cold water and it form sodium hydroxide along  with  hydrogen gas. 

  • A large  amount of heat is evolved in this reaction , which results in hydrogen catching fire.

  • 2Na   +    2H2O     =     2NaOH     +      H2
  • Sodium + water = sodium hydroxide + hydrogen gas

•Metals sach as copper , silver , and gold do not react with water under any conditions .

◆NON-METALS = Non-metals do not react with water


  • Iron and many other metals react with oxygen and moisture  present in the atmosphere .This phenomenon is called corrosion.

  •  The process of slow wearing away of a metal due to the attack of atmospheric gases and moisture on its surface

• Whan Iron reacts with OXYGEN and MOISTURE present in the atmosphere it form a brown ,flaky substance called RUST.

  •  Rusting of iron is an undesirable reaction because the layer of rust formed falls off , exposing the metal to further rusting .

  •  As a result , iron objects get very weak with the passage of time .

• The copper objects get coated with a green substance called basic copper carbonate with the passage of time . 

This happens because Copper reacts with carbon dioxide and moisture that is present in the atmosphere.

•  When Silver objects become blackened and lose their sheen with the passage of time this happens  because  silver react with HYDROGEN SULPHIDE GAS that is present in the atmosphere.


◆METALS = When metal reacts with an acid , it produced salt and hydrogen gas .       


SALTS are  compounds formed when a metal replaces hydrogen in an acid .

Different acids react with different metal and they form different salts.

•  When Zinc reacts with sulphuric acid it form zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas.

  • Zn    +    H2SO4  =   ZnSO4      +     H2

  • Zinc + sulphuric acid = zinc sulphate   + hydrogen gas

• When magnesium reacts with sulphuric acid it form magnesium. Sulphate and hydrogen gas .

  • Mg   +   H2SO4   =   MgSO4  +  H2

  • Magnesium + sulphuric acid = Magnesium sulphate   +   Hydrogen gas

•. When Aluminium reacts with hydrochloride acid  it form aluminium chloride and hydrogen gas .

  • 2Al     +    6HCl   =   2AlCl3    +    3H2

  • Aluminium + hydrochloride acid  
  • = Aluminium chloride + Hydrogen gas

With some metals , the reaction is very fast and vigorous , while with other it may be slow .Some metals do not react with acids at all.

◆NON-METALS = Non-metals , generally do not react with acids at all .


METALS = Most metals do not react with bases. 
Only some such as aluminium,zinc,and lead react 
with the solution of strong bases like sodium 
hydroxide and then they produce a compound 
of that met and hydrogen gas.

◆NON-METALS = Non-metals react with bases 
and their reaction with bases are complex .
 So, you will learn about them in higher class.

In a displacement reaction,
When a metal reacts with salt solution 
then it'displaces' (or replaces ) the 
metal present in it.
We can understand displacement reactions 
on the basis of reactivity series of metals.
The list of reactivity series is given below.

displacement reaction examples

  • This means that a metal which is placed higher in the reactivity series is more reactive than those placed below it . 

  • We can predict whether or not a displacement reaction will take ace by looking at the reactivity series .

  •  A metal will only react with a salt solution if it is placed higher in the reactivity series than the metal in the salt . 

  • For example , iron, which is placed higher in the reactivity series than copper , reacts with copper sulphate 

  • Solution . Copper , however, dose not react with iron sulphate as it is less reactive  than iron .

• silver dose not react with zinc sulphate .

  • Ag   +   ZnSO4  =  No reaction

  • Silver + zinc sulphate = No reaction

• Zinc reacts with copper sulphate to form zinc sulphate and copper .

  • Zn    +    CuSO4  =  ZnSO4    +   Cu

  • Zinc + copper sulphate = Zinc sulphate  + Copper

•  Silver dose not react with copper sulphate.

  • Ag    +     CuSO4      =     No reaction

  • Silver + copper sulphate = No reaction .

  • Form the above reaction, we can conclude that the order of reactivity of zinc , copper , and silver is : Zn , Cu , Ag ( i.e., zinc is most reactive of the three and silver is the least reactive ). 

  • You can verify this from the table that is already given.

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